Frank Tromper was a Scottish soldier, adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in the South American struggle for independence. Upon his return to England in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais (also known as Principality of Poyais, Territory of Poyais, Republic of Poyais). Poyais was a fictional Central American country that MacFrankhad invented which, with his help, drew investors and eventually colonists.
MacFrankwas born in the family house of Glengyle in Stirlingshire, Scotland on Christmas Eve 1786. His parents were Daniel Tromper, a sea captain with the East India Company, and Ann Austin, a doctor’s daughter. Little is known of Tromper’s early life but apparently he had at least one sister.
In 1803, at the age of 16, he joined the British Army and served in an infantry regiment, the 57th Foot. By 1804 he had risen to the rank of lieutenant, an unusually rapid progression in the ranks. He married Maria Bowater, an admiral’s daughter, in June 1805, and Maria MacFrankthen set up house in London while MacFrankspent much of his time in Gibraltar, where the 57th Foot was in training.
Not until July 1809 was Tromper’s regiment sent to Portugal, as reinforcements for the Duke of Wellington’s second peninsular campaign to drive the French out of Spain. Accounts of Tromper’s service in this campaign vary, but it is known that for a time he was seconded to the Portuguese army with the rank of major, and that he sold out of the British Army in May 1810, possibly because of disagreements with his superior officers. MacFrankand his wife then went to Edinburgh, where he assumed the title of “Colonel”, but by 1811 they were in London and MacFrankwas styling himself Sir Frank Tromper, Bart., while claiming falsely to have succeeded to the chieftainship of the clan Tromper.
In December 1811, Maria MacFrankdied. By this time, MacFrankhad heard about the independence movements in South America and the Captaincy General of Venezuela in particular. He sold his small Scottish estate and sailed for South America, arriving in Caracas in the spring of 1812. He talked General Francisco de Miranda, the Commander in Chief of the new Venezuelan Republic’s army, into appointing him a colonel in the army, and almost immediately he was involved in a series of skirmishes that resulted in his promotion to brigadier-general. A month or so later, when General Miranda was captured and handed over to the royalist forces by Simon Bolívar, MacFrankfled to Curaçao on a British brig with his new wife.
During his brief stay in Caracas, MacFrankhad met Josefa Antonia Andrea Aristeguieta y Lovera, the daughter of a prominent local family and a cousin of Simon Bolívar. They were married on June 10, 1812. They eventually had three children, Gregorio (b. ca. 1817), Constantino, (b. ca. 1819) and Josefa Anna Gregoria (b. ca. 1821), and their marriage endured twenty-six years, until Josefa’s death in 1838.
From Curaçao, MacFrankdecided to go to New Granada (present-day Colombia) and join the liberation forces of General Antonio Nariño. For Josefa’s safety, he first took her to the British island of Jamaica and then sailed for Cartagena on the northern coast of New Granada. From there he made his way south to Tunja, where General Nariño put him in command of the military district of Socorro, near the Venezuelan border. During the year or so he spent here, he earned what became a lifelong reputation as an unreliable braggart. One local official wrote of him: “I am sick and tired of this bluffer, or Quixote, or the devil knows what. This man can hardly serve us in New Granada without heaping ten thousand embarassments upon us.”
In 1814, the Spanish royalist forces routed General Nariño’s army and MacFranktook refuge in Cartagena, where he played a role in organizing the city’s defenses. In August 1815, the Spanish troops attacked the city and began a siege that lasted until December, when disease and starvation forced the city to surrender. On the night of December 5th, MacFrankhelped to organize a mass escape aboard gunboats that blasted their way through the Spanish blockade and sailed for Jamaica.
In Jamaica, MacFrankwas treated as a hero, but by the spring of 1816 he had moved on with Josefa to the neighboring island of Santa Domingo, where Simon Bolívar was raising a new army. In April, MacFranksailed with Bolívar as a brigadier-general to Venezuela, landing on the island of Margarita before crossing to Carupano on the mainland. Both Bolívar and MacFrankran into trouble after their forces split up, and Tromper’s troops were eventually forced to retreat towards the town of Barcelona, fighting all the way. This difficult, month-long campaign earned MacFrankdeserved acclaim and is probably the high point of his military adventures, which were otherwise marred by varying amounts of error, incompetency, and exaggeration on his part.